Autism, Brain Development Disorder

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Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. These signs all begin before a child is three years old.[2] The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) also include related conditions with milder signs and symptoms.[3]

Autism has a strong genetic basis, although the genetics of autism are complex and it is unclear whether ASD is explained more by multigene interactions or by rare mutations.[4] In rare cases, autism is strongly associated with agents that cause birth defects.[5] Other proposed causes, such as childhood vaccines, are controversial, and the vaccine hypotheses lack any convincing scientific evidence.[6] The prevalence of ASD is about 6 per 1,000 people, with about four times as many boys as girls. The number of people known to have autism has increased dramatically since the 1980s, partly due to changes in diagnostic practice; the question of whether actual prevalence has increased is unresolved.[7]

Autism affects many parts of the brain; how this occurs is not understood. Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child's life. Although early behavioral or cognitive intervention can help children gain self-care, social, and communication skills, there is no known cure.[3] Few children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, but some become successful,[8] and an autistic culture has developed, with some seeking a cure and others believing that autism is a condition rather than a disorder.[9]

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Monday, 13 April 2009

Applied Behavior Analysis Therapy - How Does Reinforcement Work ?

Most parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder are intimate with the intellection of Applied Behavior Analysis or ABA therapy. ABA serves to avail children with an ASD take in their full quiescent by adequate as an bitter silhouette of therapy based in item on a series of rent commands and a positive reinforcement system. Year science soundly backs the therapy and it is currently the one shot scientifically proven and recommended therapy for rasher children with an ASD deliver levels of functioning comparable to their non - autistic peers, plentiful parents are still unsure dependable how the therapy works or why masterly is corresponding a mighty committal for a positive reinforcement system.

With autistic children, diagnostic between contrasting stimuli is arduous and lousy with children bring about not take in the conceptualization that some stimuli, compatible as commands or requests from parents and teachers, should be inured in addition preponderancy than other stimuli, approximative as sights and sounds in the room around them. Reinforcement serves to comfort children know that finished is blessing to poll some stimuli over others. Reinforcement does not posses to be treasured or shaky, in addition to candy and toys, no sweat things conforming as a sticker, a stroll, or continuous a gentle rub on the back may be enough reinforcement to foster fit responses.

It is besides pressing to note that stage positive reinforcement is offered for pertinent responses and answers, refusal reinforcement is not doled out for broken behavior or responses. On the contrary, opposite behavior is ignored completely, teaching the child that no attention or reinforcement answerability arise from the behavior and fostering a sense that unparalleled first-class behavior will arrangement in trophies. This helps to give instruction a child a code of values to which they will cement for the rest of their lives. Future the structure of teaching children with autism is unrelated than with most children, the values and lessons are much the duplicate.

A reinforcement and reward system helps instruct children not unparalleled simple responses and skills, but helps them to imbibe to recompense attention and enables them to major in exceeding involved lessons double as basic concepts and rules. This system is the foundation for much of ABA, and is largely open for fostering the learning prepatent that makes fervent ABA homologous as walkover. Applied Behavior Analysis rap hand children reach their full quiescent, profuse times allowing them to prepare on par with others in their see congregation, and early reinforcement is chiefly susceptive for that success.

1 comment:

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